A outra face da investigação: Histórias de vida e práticas de intervenção precoce

Marina Fuertes

Resumo


O presente artigo teórico apresenta e discute a relação entre a investigação e a prática em intervenção precoce. No domínio do desenvolvimento sócio-emocional e da relação entre pais e filhos, surgem várias linhas de investigação que podem conduzir a práticas suportadas empiricamente. Neste trabalho, partimos de duas histórias de vida encontradas no decurso de uma pesquisa científica para a apresentação do estado de arte. A literatura indica
que práticas mais eficazes são centradas na reparação da “base segura” em todas as gerações. Uma acção de gabinete, exclusivamente centrada na criança, não só tende a ser pouco eficaz como pode fazer perigar a capacidade auto-protectiva da criança. Assim, analisamos as práticas de intervenção sob vários ângulos: da criança, dos pais, da família alargada, da comunidade,
dos técnicos e dos investigadores. A discussão sugere que as parcerias estabelecidas entre investigadores e técnicos podem ser elementos chave para o sucesso da intervenção.

Texto Completo:

PDF

Referências


Ainsworth, M. D. (1965). Further research into the adverse effects of maternal deprivation. In

J. Bowlby Child Care and Growth of Love. London: Penguin Book.

Ainsworth, M. D., Blehar, M., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment - A Psychological

Study of the Strange Situation. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Ainsworth, M. D., & Eichberg, C. (1991). Effects on infant-mother attachment of mother’s

unresolved loss of an attachment figure, or other traumatic experience. In C. Parkes & J.

Hinde (Eds), Attachment Across the Life Cycle. London: Routledge.

Ainsworth, M. D., & Wittig, B. (1969). Attachment, exploration, and separation: illustrated by the

behavior of one-year-olds in a strange situation. In B. M. Foss (Ed.) Determinants of Infant

behaviour (vol. 4, pp. 113-136). London: Methuen.

Bairrão, J. (1992). Psicologia do Desenvolvimento e Psicologia da Educação: O caso da Educação

e Cuidados Pré-escolares. Inovação, 1, 41-58.

Bairrão, J., & Almeida, I. C. (2003). Questões actuais em intervenção precoce. Psicologia, 17(1),

-29.

Bailey, D. B., & Simeonsson, R. J. (1988). Family assessment in early intervention. Columbus: Merril

Publishing Company.

Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., van, Ijzendoorn. M. H., & Juffer, F. (2003). Less is more: meta

analyses of sensitivity and attachment interventions in early childhood. Psychological Bulletin,

(2), 195-215.

Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., van Ijzendoorn, M. H., & Juffer, F. (2005). Disorganized infant

attachment and preventive interventions: A review and meta-analysis. Infant Mental Health

Journal, 26(3), 191-216.

Barnard, K. E., & Kelly, J. F. (1990). Assessment of parent-child interaction. In S. J. Meisels and

J. P. Shonkoff (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood intervention, (pp. 278-302). Cambridge

University, New York.

Belsky, J. (1999). Modern evolutionary theory and patterns of attachment. In J. Cassidy & P.

Shaver Handbook of Attachment - Theory, research and clinical applications (pp. 141-161). NY:

Guilford.

Belsky, J., & Fearon, R. M. P. (2002). Infant-mother attachment security, contextual risk, and early

development: A moderational analysis. Development and Psychopathology, 14(2), 293-310.

Berlin, L. J. (2005). Intervention to Enhance Early Attachment: The State of the Field Today.

In Berlin, L. J., Ziv, Y., Amaya-Jackson, Greenberg, M. Enhancing Early Attachments - Theory,

Research, Intervention and Policy (pp. 3-33). New York: Guilford.

Bjorklund, D. F., Yunger, J. L., & Pellegrini, A. D. (2002). The evolution of parenting and evolutionary

approaches to childrearing (pp.) In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.) Handbook of Parenting (2ªedicção, vol 1: The biology of parenting., pp. 3-30) New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Bowlby, J. (1969, 1982). Attachment and Loss (Vol. I) London: Penguin Book.

Bowlby, J. (1980) Attachment and Loss (Loss - Sadness and Depression, Vol. III) London: Penguin Books.

Bowlby, J. (1988). A Secure Base - Clinical Applications of Attachment Theory. London: Routledge.

Breia, G., Almeida, I., & Colôa, J. (2004). Conceitos e Práticas em Intervenção Precoce. Lisboa:

Direcção Geral de Inovação e Desenvolvimento Curricular, Direcção de Serviços da

Educação Especial e do Apoio Sócio-Educativo.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design.

Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1992). Ecological systems theory. In R. Vasta (Ed.) Six theories of child

development: Revised formulations and current issues (pp.187-248). Philadelphia: Jessica

Kingsley.

Bus, A. G., & van Ijzendoorn, M. H. (1988). Attachment and early reading: a longitudinal study.

Journal of Genetic Psycholy, 149(2), 199-210.

Cassidy, J., Woodhouse, S. S., Cooper, G., Hoffman, K., Powell, B., & Rodenberg, M. (2005).

Examination of the Precursors of Infant Attachment Security: Implications for Early

Intervention. In Berlin, L. J., Ziv, Y., Amaya-Jackson, Greenberg, M. Enhancing Early Attachments

- Theory, Research, Intervention and Policy (pp. 34-60). New York: Guilford.

Cicchetti, D., & Wagner, S. (1990). An interdisciplinary model of infant assessment. In S. Meisels &

J. Shonkoff (Eds), Handbook of Early Childhood Intervention. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press.

Chaves de Almeida, I, (2004 ). Intervenção precoce: Focada na criança ou centrada na família e

na comunidade? Análise Psicológica, 22(1), 43-54.

Consortium for Longitudinal Studies (1983). As the twig is bent…lasting effects of preschool

programs. Hillsdale, N. J: Erlbaum.

Cooper, G., Hoffman, K., Powell, B., &

Marvin, R. (2005). The Circle of Security Intervention: Differential Diagnosis and Differential

Treatment. In Berlin, L. J., Ziv, Y., Amaya-Jackson, Greenberg, M. Enhancing Early Attachments

- Theory, Research, Intervention and Policy (pp. 127-151). New York: Guilford.

Crittenden, P. M. (1988). Relationships at risk. In J. Belsky & T. Nezworski (Eds.) The clinical

implications of attachment. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Crittenden, P. M. (1992). Quality of attachment in the preschool years. Development and

Psychopathology, 4, 209-241.

Crittenden, P. M. (1995a). Children’s strategies for coping with adverse home environments: an

interpretation using attachment theory. Child Abuse & Neglect, 16, 329-343.

Crittenden, P. M. (1995b). Attachment and risk for psychopathology: the early years. Journal of

developmental and behavioral pediatrics, 16(3), 12-16.

Crittenden, P. M. (1999). A dynamic-maturational approach to continuity and change in pattern

of attachment. In J. I. Vondra & D. Barnett (Eds.), Atypical attachment in infancy and early

childhood among at developmental risk. Monographs of the society for research in child

development, 258(64),145-171.

Crittenden, P. M. (2008). Raising Parents: Attachment, Parenting and Child Safety. Devon: Willan

Publishing.

Crittenden, P. M., & Claussen, A. (2000). Adaptation to varied environments. In P. M. Crittenden,

A. Claussen (Eds.) The organization of attachment relationships: Maturation, culture and context

(pp.235-248). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Crittenden, P. M., & DiLalla, D. (1988). Compulsive compliance: The development of an inhibitory

coping in infancy. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 3, 491-512.

Crnic, K., Ragozin, S., Greenberg, M., Robinson, M., & Basham, R. (1983). Social interaction

and development competence of preterm and full-term during the first year of life. Child

Development, 54, 1199-210.

De Wolff, M., & van Ijzendoorn, M. (1997). Sensitive and attachment: A meta-analysis on parental

antecedents of infant attachment. Child Development, 68(4), 571-591

Decreto-lei nº281/2009 (DR, I série, nº 193) para a criação do Sistema Nacional de Intervenção

Precoce na Infância (SNIPI).

Despacho Conjunto N º 891/99. Diário da República. II Série, nº 244 de 19-10-99.

Dunst, C. J., Hamby, D., Trivette, C. M., Raab, M., & Bruder, M. B. (2000). Everyday family and

community life and children’s naturally occurring learning opportunities. Journal of Early

Intervention, 23, 151-164.

Elkan, R., Kendrick, D., Hewitt, M., Robinson, J. J., Tolley, K., Blair, M., Dewey, M., Williams, D., &

Brummell K. (2000) The effectiveness of domiciliary health visiting: a systematic review

of international studies and a selective review of the British literature. Health Technology

Assessment, 4, i-339.

European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education (2003). Special Needs Education

in Europe. Retirado em 6 de Setembro de 2006 de http://www.european-agency.org/eci/word/

mrtrp/ei-portugal.ppt

EQM-PD: European Quality Management for Persons with Disabilities (2005). Professional

Education in Early Intervention Systems in Europe: http://www.eqmpd.com/ebiff/download/

professional_education_in_early_intervention_in_europe.pdf

Feldman, R. (2007). Parent-infant synchrony: Biological foundations and developmental

outcomes. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(6), 340-345.

Forcada-Guex, M., Pierrehumbert, B., Borghini, A., Moessinger, A., & Muller-Nix, C. (2006). Early

dyadic patterns of mother-infant interactions and outcomes of prematurity at 18 months.

Pediatrics, 118(1), 107-114.

Fuertes, M., Faria, A., Soares, H., & Crittenden, P. (2008). Mother-child patterns of interaction:

the impact of premature birth and social economical background. Actha Ethologica, 12(1),

-11.

Fuertes, M. Faria, A, Soares, H. Oliveira-Costa, A., Corval, R. & Figueiredo, S. (2009). Dois

parceiros, uma só dança: Contributos do estudo da interacção mãe-filho para a Intervenção

Precoce. In Portugal, G. (Ed) Ideias, projectos e inovação no mundo das infâncias - o percurso e

a presença de Joaquim Bairrão, (pp. 127-140).

Furstenberg, F. J., Cook, T., Eccles, J., Elder, G. H., & Sameroff, A. J. (1999). Urban families and

adolescent success. University Chicago Press, Chicago.

Garbarino, J (1990). The human ecology of early risk. In S. J. Meisels & J. P Shonkoff (Eds.),

Handbook of early intervention (pp78-96). Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.

Goldberg, S. & DiVitto, B. (1995). Parenting children born preterm. In M. Bronstein (Ed.),

Handbook of parenting, Vol. I, (pp. 209-31). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Greenberg, M. T. (2005). Enhancing Early Attachment: Synthesis and Recommendations for

Research, Practice and Policy. In Berlin, L. J., Ziv, Y., Amaya-Jackson, Greenberg, M. Enhancing

Early Attachments - Theory, Research, Intervention and Policy (pp. 327-344). New York: Guilford.

Greenberg, M. T., Speltz, M. L., & Deklyen, M. (1993). The Role of Attachment in the Early

Development of Disruptive Behavior Problems. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 1-2,

-213.

HBHC: Evaluation of Ontario’s Healthy Babies, Healthy Children Program (2004) Evaluation of

Ontario’s Healthy Babies, H.C.P.H. Retirado em 18 Outubro de 2004 de http://www.tns-cf.

com/social/hbhc.html.

Hoffman, K. T., Marvin, R. S., Cooper, G., & Powell, B. (2006). Changing toddlers’ and preschoolers’

attachment classifications: The circle of security intervention. Journal of Consulting and

Clinical Psychology, 74(6) 1017-1026.

Holmes, J. (1993). John Bowlby and Attachment theory. London: Routledge.

Howes, D., Brandon, M., Hinings, D., & Schofield, G. (1999). Attachment theory, child maltreatment

and family support. UK: Palgrave.

Lyons-Ruth, K., Connell, D., Zoll, D., & Stahl, J. (1987). Infants at social risk: Relations among

infant maltreatment, maternal behavior and infant attachment behavior. Developmental

Psychology, 23, 681-692.

Lyons-Ruth, K., Bronfman, E., & Parsons, E. (1999). Maternal frightened, frightening or atypical

behavior and disorganized infant attachment patterns. In J. I. Vondra & D. Barnett (Eds.)

Atypical attachment in infancy and early childhood among at developmental risk.

Monographs of the society for research in child development, 258(64), 67-98.

Lyons-Ruth, K., & Jacobvitz, D. (1999). Attachment disoganization. In J. Cassidy & P. Shaver

Handbook of Attachment - Theory, research and clinical applications (pp. 520-554). New York:

Guilford.

MacDonald, G. (2001). Effective Intervention for Child Abuse and Neglect. An Evidence-based

Approach to Planning and Evaluating Interventions. Chichester, UK: Wiley.

Main, M. (1999). Epilogue. Attachment Theory: Eighteen Points. In J. Cassidy & P. Shaver Handbook

of Attachment - Theory, research and clinical applications (pp. 845-887). New York: Guilford.

Main, M., & Cassidy, J. (1988). Categories of response to reunion with the parent at age six:

Predictability from infant attachment classifications and stable across a one-month period.

Developmental Psychology, 24, 415-426.

Main, M., & Solomon, J. (1986). Discovery of an insecure-disorganized/disoriented attachment

pattern. In T. Brazelton & M. Jogman (Eds), Affective Development in Infancy (pp.95-124). New

Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Main, M., & Solomon, J. (1990). Procedures for identifying infants as disorganized/disoriented

during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. In M. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti, & E. Cummings

(Eds.), Attachment in the Preschool Years: Theory, Research and Intervention (pp.121-160).

Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Marvin, R., Cooper, G., Hoffman, K., & Powell, B. (2002). The Circle of Security project:

attachment-based intervention with caregiver-pre-school child dyads. Attachment and

Human Development, 4(1), 107-124.

Meisels, S. J., & Shonkoff, J. P. (2000). Early childhood intervention: A continuing evolution. In

J. P Shonkoff & S. J. Meisels (Eds.), Handbook of early intervention (pp. 3-31). Cambridge:

Cambridge University Press.

Muller-Nix, C., Forcada-Guex, M., Pierrehumbert, B., Jaunin, L., Borghini, A., & Ansermet, F. (2004).

Prematurity, maternal stress and mother-child interactions. Early human Development, 79,

-158.

Oppenheim, D., Dolev, S., Koren-Karie, N., Sher-Censor, E., Yirmiya, N., & Salomon, S. (2007).

Parental Resolution of the child’s Diagnosis and the Parent-Child Relationships: Insights

from the Reaction to Diagnosis Interview. In Oppenheim, D. & Goldsmith, D. F. Attachment

Theory in Clinical Work with Children (pp.109-138).. New York: Guildford.

Pieker, S., Nelson, D., Deklyen, M., & Staerkel, F. (2005). Enhancing Early Attachment in the

Context of Early Head Start: Can Programs Emphasizing Family Support Improve Rates

of Secure Infant-Mother Attachment in Low-Income Families? In Berlin, L. J., Ziv, Y., Amaya-

Jackson, Greenberg, M. Enhancing Early Attachments - Theory, Research, Intervention and Policy.(pp.250-275). New York: Guilford.

Pimentel, J. (2004). Avaliação de programas de intervenção precoce. Análise Psicológica, 22(1)

-72.

Portugal, G. (1998). Crianças, famílias e creches. Porto: Porto Editora.

Powell, B., Cooper, G., Hoffman, K., & Marvin, R. (2007). The Circle of Security Project: A Case

Study – “It hurts to give that which you did not received”. In Oppenheim, D. & Goldsmith, D. F.

Attachment Theory in Clinical Work with Children. New York: Guildford.

Reid, K. W., Vittinghoff, E., & Kushel, M. B. (2008). Association between the Level of Housing

Instability, Economic Standing and Health Care Access: A Meta-Regression. Journal of Health

Care for the Poor and Underserved, 19(4), 1212-1228.

Ridley, M. (2004). A Rainha de Copas – O Sexo e a evolução da natureza humana. Lisboa: Gradiva.

Sameroff, A. J., & Chandler, M. J. (1975). Reproductive risk and the continuum of caretaking

casualty (187-244) in F. D. Horowitz; M. Hetherington; S. Scarr, Salapatek; G. Siegel (Eds.).

Review of child development research, vol. 4. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Sameroff, A., & Fiese, B. (1990; 2000). Transactional regulation and early intervention. In S. Meisels

& J. Shonkoff (Eds.), Handbook of Early Childhood Intervention (pp. 135-159). Cambridge:

Cambridge University Press.

Sameroff, A. J., Seifer, R., Barocas, R., Zax, M., & Greenspan, S. (1987) Intelligence quotient scores

of 4-year-old children: social-environmental risk factors. Pediatrics 79, 343–350.

Simeonnson, R. (1998) Excepcional Child Development. Seminário de Mestrado em Intervenção

Precoce. Faculdade de Psicologia da Universidade do Porto.

Simeonsson, R, J., & Bailey, D. B. (1990). Family dimensions in early intervention. In S. J. Meisels

& J. P. Shonkoff (Eds.), Handbook of early intervention (pp. 428-444). Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press.

Simpson, J. A. (1999). Attachment theory in modern evolutionary perspective. In J. Cassidy and

P. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of Attachment - Theory, research and clinical applications. Guilford:

New York.

Rutter, M. (1998). New Cycles of Disadvantage? Report of a conference organised by

CASE on behalf ofESRC for HM Treasury. http://www.ucc.ie/acad/socstud/tmp_store/LSE/

CASEreport1new%20cycles%20of%20disadvantage.pdf

Trentacosta, C. J., Hyde, L. W., Shaw, D. S., Dishion, T. J., Gardner, F., & Wilson, M. (2008). The

relations among cumulative risk, parenting, and behavior problems during early childhood.

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(11), 1211-1219.

Tronick, E. Z. (2003). “Of course all relationships are unique”: How co-creative processes

generate unique mother-infant and patient-therapist relationships and change other

relationships. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 23(3), 473-491.

Tronick, E. Z., & Cohn, J. F. (1989). Infant-Mother Face-to-Face Interaction - Age and Gender

Differences in Coordination and the Occurrence of Miscoordination. Child Development,

(1), 85-92.

Tronick, E. Z., Scanlon, K. B., and Scanlon, J. W. (1985). A comparative-analysis of the validity of

several approaches to the scoring of the behavior of the preterm infant. Infant Behavior &

Development, 8(4) 395-411.

van IJzendoorn, M., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & Juffer, F. (2005). Why Less is More: From the

Dodo Bird Verdict To Evidence-Based Interventions on Sensitivity and Early Attachment.

In Berlin, L. J., Ziv, Y., Amaya-Jackson, Greenberg, M. Enhancing Early Attachments - Theory,

Research, Intervention and Policy. (pp. 297-312). New York: Guilford.

van IJzendoorn, M. H., Dijkstra, J., & Bus, A. G. (1995). Attachment, Intelligence, and Language - a

Metaanalysis. Social Development, 4, 2, 115-128.

van IJzendoorn, M., Goldberg, S., Kroonenberg, P., & Frenkel, O. (1992). The relative effects of

maternal and child problems on the quality of attachment: a meta-analysis of attachment in

clinical samples. Child Development, 63, 840-856.

van IJzendoorn, M., Juffer, F., & Duyvesteyn, M. (1995). Breaking the intergenerational cycle of

insecure attachment: a review of the effects of attachment-based interventions on maternal

sensitivity and infant security. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 2, 225-248.

van Ijzendoorn, M. H., Schuengel, C., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (1999). Disorganized

attachment in early childhood: meta-analysis of precursors, concomitants, and sequelae.

Developmental Psychopathology, 11, 2, 225-249.

von Bertalanffy, L. V. (1968). General Systems Theory. New York: Georges Brazilles.

Ziv, Y. (2005). Attachment-Based Intervention Programs: Implications for Attachment Theory

and Research. In Berlin, L. J., Ziv, Y., Amaya-Jackson, Greenberg, M. Enhancing Early Attachments

- Theory, Research, Intervention and Policy. (pp. 61-78). New York: Guilford.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25757/invep.v1i1.56

Apontadores

  • Não há apontadores.


Copyright (c)